Diseases on crops for which Bordeaux Mixture is extensively used
CROP  
DISEASES
 
SYMPTOMS
 
CONTROL
 
 
 

POD ROT / BLACK POD (PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA)

PHYTOPHTHORA CANKER (PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA)

The first visible symptom is the appearance of a circular brown spot, which enlarges concentrically, and evenly to cover the whole pod surface. Ultimately the colour of the affected pod becomes dark brown or black. In immature pods, the discolouration spreads internally with rotting of the beans.
The earliest symptom is the appearance of greyish brown water-soaked lesion with dark brown to black margin anywhere on the stem. The wood shows greyish brown discolouration with black streaks. Wilting occurs, when canker girdles the affected stem / branches.
 
Periodically remove and destroy all dried up and infected pods. Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture with the onset of monsoon and also at frequent intervals. Provide proper drainage and regulate shade to increase aeration
 
Remove all the infected and dried branches. Apply Bordeaux paste at the fork region and at the cut ends of the twigs and spray with 1% Bordeaux Mixture before the onset of monsoon. Repeat spraying again once or twice during the monsoon season is ideal.
 
   

PINK DISEASE (CORTICIUM SALMONICOLOR)

 
The disease appears as a pinkish powdery coating on the stem of affected plants. The extent to which the leaf may wilt, turn brown and fall depends on the part of the tree, which is affected. The disease mainly affects the forking region and the damage is localized. Splitting of the bark on the affected region is also noticed.
 
Remove all the infected and dried branches. Apply Bordeaux paste at the fork region and at the cut ends of the twigs and spray with 1% Bordeaux Mixture before the onset of monsoon. Repeat spraying again once or twice during the monsoon season is ideal.
 
 
  black pepper
 
POWDERY MILDEW
DOWNY MILDEW
Appears on foliage, fruit, flower parts and canes. In severe cases the leaf become discoloured, stems become grey and turn dark brown, on fruit whitish growth appears leading to discolouration, cracking or shedding of fruits.
The disease mainly appears on the leaves, but also attacks the flower clusters and young fruits. The losses are very high when it attacks the cluiters, before fruit set.
Prophylactic spraying of 1% Bordeaux Mixture to control the spread.
Destroy Anfected leaves, shoots and berries. Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture.
  Coffee
 

LEAF RUST (HEMILEIA VASTATRIX)

BLACK ROT (KOLEROGA NOXIA)

BROWN BLIGHT, DIE­BACK (COLLETOTRICHUM GLEOSPOROIDES PENZ)

Small pale-yellow spots on the lower surface of infected leaves appear early after the first rains, later turn to orange yellow powdery mass. Infected plant exhibit defoliation, and die-back.
Blackening and rotting of affected leaves, young twigs and berries. Affected leaves get detached and hang down by means of slimy fungal strands. Defoliation and berry drop occur.
Yellowing or blighting of any leaf on the green wood, necrosis of nodes and internodes towards the tip. Twigs wilt and defoliate. Floral buds on the infected branches fail to open.
Maintain optimum shade Applications of 0.5% Bordeaux Mixture during April - June
(pre - monsoon) and August - October
(post - monsoon).
Remove and burn affected plants. Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture before the onset of south - west monsoon.
Spray 0.5% Bordeaux Mixture during Feb/March (Pre-blossom), April - June (pre­monsoon) and August - October (post- monsoon).
  arricanut
 

KOLEROGA
(MAHALI OR FRUIT ROT)
(PHYOPHTHORA ARECAE)

Water soaked lesions appearing on the nut surface near the perianth spread over the other parts giving the nut a dark green colour. Infected nuts shed without perianth.

Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture twice, one before the onset of southwest monsoon and the other, at 45 days interval. If monsoon is prolonged give a third spray.

BUD ROT
(PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA)

Affected spindle appears yellow, later changing to brown and finally the whole spindle rots.

Early removal of the infected tissue and treat the healthy tissues with Bordeaux paste. Drench the crown with 1% Bordeaux mixture as a prophylactic measure.

  black pepper
FOOT ROT
(QUICK WILT)
(PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI)

All parts of the plant at various stages of growth are susceptible to this disease. There are mainly three types of symptoms which are generally observed, they are leaf rot, collar rot and root rot.

Spray 1% Bordeaux during May - June and during July - August. Paste the main stem upto 1 to 1½ m above soil level with Bordeaux paste.

FUNGAL POLLU
(ANTHRACNOSE)
(COLLETOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES)

It attacks leaves, young shoots, spikes and berries. The affected berries show sunken patches, later turn black and dry.

Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture, once before flowering starts (June - July) and then at berry formation stage (August - September).

 
 
  cardamom

AZHUKAL
(CAPSULE ROT) (PHYTOPHTHORA MEADII)

It affects the leaves, tender shoots, panicles and capsules. On the infected leaves, water soaked lesions appear first and rotting and shedding of leaves along the veins occur thereafter. The infected capsules become dull greenish brown and decay.

Phytosanitation measures. Spray the shoots with 1% Bordeaux Mixture by the commencement of the monsoon and at 30 days interval depending on the intensity of the disease and rainfall.

LEAF BLOTCH (PHAEODACTYLIUM ALPINIAE)

Occurs in heavy rain zones, affected capsules turn brownish black in colour, often rotting extends to tillers and rhizomes also..

Do trashing, remove infected and dead plants etc. Spray 1% Bordeaux during May - June (Pre­monsoon) and at 30 days interval depending on the disease spread.

  rubber

PINK DISEASE
(CORTICIUM SALMONICOLOR BERK & BR)

More damaging for plants in the age group of 2 to 12 years. Main seat of infection is usually the fork region.

Two rounds of spraying with 1% Bordeaux Mixture (during May and August) on to the fork and branches reduces disease incidence.

ABNORMAL LEAF FALL
(PHYTOPHTHORA PALMIVORA)

Annual recurrence during southwest monsoon period. First the fruits rot, later infected leaves fall in large numbers prematurely. Heavy defoliation may lead to considerable loss of crop.

Prophylactic spraying of the foliage prior to the onset of south west monsoon with 1% Bordeaux Mixture. Apply Bordeaux paint on stems for curing the deep & deformed wounds (latex oozing out symptom).

  ginger
LEAF SPOT
Appearance of one or more black spots and the leaves falls
Spray 1% Bordeaux Mixture during June - July periods.
RHIZOME ROT
OR
SOFT ROT
Appearance of rotting of leaves and stems. The desease is seed borne. Decaying of the affected clumps occures and finally the whole rots.

Phytosanitation measures.
Dig out the affected plants and drench the beds with 1% Bordeaux Mixture.

 
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